Excerpt from Streams of Living Water

Social jus­tice is where the cen­tral issue in the Holi­ness Tra­di­tion — love — meets the road. Dag Ham­marskjöld wrote, The road to holi­ness nec­es­sar­i­ly pass­es through the world of action.”1 And so the super­nat­ur­al resources to live appro­pri­ate­ly — to live the vir­tu­ous life — now extend out into our rela­tion­ships with peo­ple and with social struc­tures and even with the earth itself.

Two Sweep­ing Movements

The ful­crum for the Social Jus­tice Tra­di­tion is Matthew 22:37 – 40: ‘“You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ This is the great­est and first com­mand­ment. And a sec­ond is like it: You shall love your neigh­bor as your­self.’ On these two com­mand­ments hang all the law and the prophets.”2

In Jesus’ day there were 613 com­mand­ments of Jew­ish law — 365 neg­a­tive and 248 pos­i­tive. And Jesus gath­ers them all togeth­er into two sweep­ing move­ments of the heart. Love of God is the ver­ti­cal move­ment and love of neigh­bor the hor­i­zon­tal. They are sep­a­rate com­mand­ments, to be sure, but insep­a­ra­ble real­ly. White-hot love of God com­pels us into com­pas­sion­ate love of neighbor. 

In Luke’s ren­der­ing of this teach­ing a lawyer asks Jesus, Who is my neigh­bor?” (Luke 10:29b). That is a good ques­tion. The com­mon view of that day was that neigh­bor” meant cul­tur­al equiv­a­lent”: the per­son who looks like me, dress­es like me, thinks like me. To explode that com­mon view of neigh­bor, Jesus tells the now-famous sto­ry of a Samar­i­tan — some­one who is def­i­nite­ly not the Jew’s cul­tur­al equiv­a­lent — who showed com­pas­sion on a beat­en and bro­ken Jew, the avowed ene­my of the Samar­i­tan. That’s it! Neigh­bor, says Jesus, is nigh-bor,” the per­son near us, the per­son in need. Jesus refus­es to put walls around the word neigh­bor. No nation­al her­itage, no racial ori­gin, no eth­nic back­ground, no bar­ri­ers of class or cul­ture can sep­a­rate us from our neighbor. 

Paul gives this same issue mem­o­rable expres­sion when he says, There is no longer Greek and Jew, cir­cum­cised and uncir­cum­cised, bar­bar­ian, Scythi­an, slave and free; but Christ is all and in all!” (Col. 3:11). I espe­cial­ly like this list­ing because Paul includes the Scythi­an in it. The Scythi­ans were the barbarian’s bar­bar­ians — Jose­phus called them wild beasts.” But in Jesus even the Scythi­an is my neigh­bor, whom I am to love as myself. 

In his Ser­mon on the Mount Jesus push­es the hor­i­zon­tal move­ment of love of neigh­bor to the nth degree. In this teach­ing he reminds us that lov­ing our cul­tur­al equiv­a­lent” is noth­ing new; the unright­eous do as much. Instead, he says, Love your ene­mies and pray for those who per­se­cute you” (Matt. 5:44). Here we come to an under­stand­ing of neigh­bor that few can han­dle: our ene­my is our neighbor. 

Now, lov­ing our ene­mies is sim­ply not in us in nat­ur­al human strength. Most of us can­not view it as a good thing, much less car­ry it out. Even to want to love our ene­mies demands a pow­er out­side of us, which is pre­cise­ly why the ver­ti­cal move­ment of love is so essen­tial to the hor­i­zon­tal move­ment of love. Love of God makes love of neigh­bor possible.

Three Great Themes 

The Social Jus­tice Tra­di­tion embraces three great themes — themes that are won­der­ful­ly summed up in three Hebrew words: מִשְׁפָּט (mish­pat), חֶסֶד (hesed) , and שָׁלוֹם (shalom).3

Tech­ni­cal­ly mish­pat means jus­tice,” but it is an expan­sive word rich in mean­ing, car­ry­ing social, eth­i­cal, and reli­gious con­no­ta­tions. It involves a moral­i­ty over and above strict legal jus­tice; it includes obser­vance of good cus­tom or estab­lished prac­tice, espe­cial­ly the prac­tice of an equi­table dis­tri­b­u­tion of the land. It is used so con­stant­ly in con­junc­tion with the Hebrew word for right­eous­ness (צָדַק) that the bib­li­cal schol­ar Volk­mar Hern­trich believes the two con­cepts should be viewed as vir­tu­al­ly syn­ony­mous.4

We are told that God exe­cutes jus­tice [mish­pat] for the orphan and the wid­ow, and… loves the strangers, pro­vid­ing them food and cloth­ing” (Deut. 10:18). And again the Psalmist declared, The LORD works vin­di­ca­tion and jus­tice [mish­pat] for all who are oppressed” (Ps. 103:6).

This jus­tice involved the wis­dom to bring equi­table, har­mo­nious rela­tion­ships between peo­ple. When Solomon prayed for the wis­dom to gov­ern the peo­ple just­ly, God respond­ed, You… have asked for your­self under­stand­ing to dis­cern what is right [mish­pat]” (1 Kings 3:11).

Polit­i­cal lead­ers were expect­ed to exer­cise this qual­i­ty of eth­i­cal com­pas­sion, of jus­tice, on behalf of all the peo­ple. Mic­ah accused the rulers of Israel of eco­nom­ic can­ni­bal­ism for their bru­tal injustice: 

Should you not know jus­tice? you who…
eat the flesh of my peo­ple,
flay their skin off them,
break their bones in pieces,
and chop them up like meat in a ket­tle,
like flesh in a cal­dron. (Mic­ah 3:1b‑3)

Jere­mi­ah was bro­ken­heart­ed that jus­tice could not be found any­where in all Jerusalem, though a per­son would run to and fro” through every street (Jer. 5:1).

God had insti­tu­tion­al­ized a sys­tem of com­pas­sion­ate jus­tice through such things as the law of glean­ing and the Year of Jubilee, but polit­i­cal lead­ers in Israel had insti­tu­tion­al­ized a sys­tem of hard­ened injus­tice, Woe to those who decree iniq­ui­tous decrees,” lament­ed Isa­iah, and the writ­ers who keep writ­ing oppres­sion” (Isa. 10:1, RSV). God, we are told, abhors all Judah’s pious rit­u­als because they lack social rel­e­vance. The fast God desires is for peo­ple to loose the bonds of injus­tice” and to let the oppressed go free.” God’s jus­tice, God’s mish­pat, is for the peo­ple to share your bread with the hun­gry, / and bring the home­less poor into your house” (Isa. 58:5 – 7, RSV). This is social justice. 

Hesed holds before us the great theme of com­pas­sion. It is a word so laden with mean­ing that trans­la­tors strug­gle to find an Eng­lish equiv­a­lent, often ren­der­ing it lov­ing kind­ness” or stead­fast love.” It is a word most fre­quent­ly used in ref­er­ence to God’s unwa­ver­ing com­pas­sion for his peo­ple. God’s won­der­ful hesed love is from ever­last­ing to ever­last­ing,” declared the Psalmist (Ps. 103:17). It is a stead­fast love” that endures for­ev­er” (Ps. 106:1).

But the great chal­lenge for us is that this covenant love, this durable mer­cy that is so cen­tral to the char­ac­ter of God, is to be reflect­ed in us as well. Through Hosea the prophet, God declares, I desire stead­fast love [hesed] and not sac­ri­fice, / the knowl­edge of God rather than burnt offer­ings” (Hos. 6:6).

Sprin­kled through­out the Hebrew Scrip­tures are grace-filled laws of com­pas­sion, of hesed. The law of glean­ing, men­tioned ear­li­er, is a prime exam­ple. Farm­ers were to leave some of the crop along the bor­ders and the grain that fell on the ground dur­ing har­vest so that the poor could gath­er it (Lev. 19:9 – 20). Like­wise the vine­yards and the olive groves were not to be stripped bare, in order to make pro­vi­sion for the needy. There seemed in this law to be an almost holy indif­fer­ence as to whether the poor deserved their pover­ty; the sim­ple fact of need was suf­fi­cient rea­son to pro­vide for them. 

Think of the ten­der com­pas­sion in the old Hebrew laws of giv­ing and tak­ing a pledge. If some­one bor­rowed your oxcart and left his coat in pledge, you had to be sure to give the coat back before sun­set even if he hadn’t fin­ished with the oxcart. Why? Because the night air was cold, and he would need his coat for warmth. The rule was dou­bly bind­ing if the per­son who made the pledge was poor, for in all like­li­hood he had no oth­er coat with which to keep warm (Deut. 24:12). A widow’s coat could not be tak­en as a pledge, because she was help­less enough as it was (Deut. 24:17). A mill­stone was nev­er to be tak­en in pledge; after all, it was a person’s liveli­hood (Deut. 24:6). No one was ever to barge into a neighbor’s house to retrieve what had been loaned; rather, the lender was to wait at the front door for it to be brought out (Deut. 24:10 – 11). Gra­cious­ness, cour­tesy, com­pas­sion — this is hesed.

Hesed is a qual­i­ty that extends even to the ani­mals and the land. The sab­bath rest prin­ci­ple of Hebrew law includ­ed the needs of the live­stock (Exod. 23:12). After sev­en years of plant­i­ng and har­vest­ing, the land itself need­ed a year of com­plete rest” (Lev. 25:5). Even the soil of the vine­yards was not to be over­taxed by plant­i­ng oth­er crops between the rows (Deut. 22:9). The oxen that trod out the grain were not to be muz­zled so that they could eat while they worked (Deut. 25:4). And so on. The whole point of this instruc­tion was that our domin­ion over the earth and the lit­tle crea­tures that creep upon it is to be filled with com­pas­sion. We should not rape the earth but man­age and care for it — kind­ly, lov­ing­ly, ten­der­ly. This too is social justice. 

Most amaz­ing of all is the way the bib­li­cal writ­ers wove togeth­er the jus­tice of mish­pat with the com­pas­sion of hesed. To give peo­ple jus­tice — what is due them — that is one thing; but the spir­it out of which we give and the way we relate to peo­ple in our giv­ing, well, that is anoth­er thing alto­geth­er. In what must be con­sid­ered one of the most pow­er­ful sum­ma­tions of our task in all Hebrew Scrip­ture, we see the blend­ing of the demands of jus­tice with the spir­it of compassion. 

He has showed you, O peo­ple, what is good.
And what does the LORD require of you?
To act just­ly [mish­pat] and to love mer­cy [hesed]
and to walk humbly with your God. (Mic. 6:8NIVI)

If mish­pat and hesed are spot­lights illu­mi­nat­ing var­i­ous dimen­sions of the Social Jus­tice Tra­di­tion, then shalom is a great bea­con. A full-bod­ied con­cept that gath­ers in but is much broad­er than peace, shalom means whole­ness, uni­ty, bal­ance. Shalom embod­ies the vision of a har­mo­nious, all-inclu­sive com­mu­ni­ty of lov­ing per­sons. The great vision of shalom begins and ends our Bible. In the cre­ation nar­ra­tive, God brings order and har­mo­ny out of chaos; in the Apoc­a­lypse of John peo­ple from all the nations form a lov­ing com­mu­ni­ty in the holy city, the new Jerusalem,” which has no tem­ple, for its tem­ple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb” (Gen. 1, Rev. 21). 

The mes­sian­ic child to be born is the Prince of Peace,” and jus­tice and right­eous­ness and peace are to char­ac­ter­ize his unend­ing king­dom (Isa. 9:6 – 7). Cen­tral to the dream of shalom is the mag­nif­i­cent vision of all nations stream­ing to the moun­tain of the tem­ple of God to be taught his ways and walk in his paths: 

They shall beat their swords into plow­shares,
and their spears into prun­ing hooks;
nation shall not lift up sword against nation,
nei­ther shall they learn war any more. (Isa. 2:2 – 4

Shalom con­veys the idea of a har­mo­nious uni­ty in the nat­ur­al order as well: the wolf and the calf become friends, the lion and the lamb lie down togeth­er, and a lit­tle child shall lead them” (Isa. 11:1 – 9). We are in har­mo­ny with God; faith­ful­ness and loy­al­ty pre­vail. We are in har­mo­ny with our neigh­bor; jus­tice and mer­cy abound. We are in har­mo­ny with nature; peace and uni­ty reign. This is the vision of shalom.

Eco­nom­i­cal­ly and social­ly, the vision of shalom means a car­ing and a con­sid­er­a­tion for all peo­ples. The greed of the rich is tem­pered by the need of the poor. Jus­tice, har­mo­ny, and equipoise pre­vail. Under the reign of God’s shalom the poor are no longer oppressed, because rav­aging greed no longer rules. 

In a par­tic­u­lar­ly ten­der scene, Jere­mi­ah lament­ed the fraud and greed of his day, say­ing, They have treat­ed the wound of my peo­ple care­less­ly, say­ing Peace, peace,’ when there is no peace” (Jer. 6:14). In essence, Jere­mi­ah had filed a mal­prac­tice suit against self-styled reli­gious quacks. They had put a Band-Aid over a gap­ing social wound and said, Shalom, shalom—all is well.” But Jere­mi­ah thun­dered back, En shalom—all is not well. Jus­tice is spurned, the poor are oppressed, the orphan is ignored. There is no whole­ness, no heal­ing here!” 

But the heal­ing shalom of God will not be spurned for­ev­er, for Jere­mi­ah could see a day when God would make a new covenant with his peo­ple: I will put my law with­in them, and I will write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my peo­ple. No longer shall they teach one anoth­er, or say to each oth­er, Know the LORD,’ for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the great­est, says the LORD; for I will for­give their iniq­ui­ty, and remem­ber their sin no more” (Jer. 31:33b-34).

Mish­pat, hesed, shalom—these are per­spec­tives that inform our vision of the Social Jus­tice Tra­di­tion. May the day soon come when stead­fast love and faith­ful­ness will meet; right­eous­ness and peace will kiss each oth­er” (Ps. 85:10).

Three Great Arenas 

We work for social jus­tice with­in three great are­nas, and we are giv­en weapons of the Spir­it specif­i­cal­ly designed for effec­tive use in the con­text of each of these arenas. 

The first are­na in the strug­gle for social jus­tice is the per­son­al are­na. This is crit­i­cal, for we can­not work for jus­tice and live injus­tice; we can­not work for peace and live war; we can­not work for racial rec­on­cil­i­a­tion and live big­otry. So we stand against all forms of pride, envy, anger, sloth, greed, glut­tony, and lust with­in our­selves, for these destroy the good we would do in the world. We take the issues of sex­u­al puri­ty and rec­ti­tude with utter seri­ous­ness, for sex­u­al dis­tor­tion dehu­man­izes our­selves and oth­ers. We repu­di­ate and cru­ci­fy the self-sins with­in: self-pro­mo­tion, self-pity, self-suf­fi­cien­cy, self-right­eous­ness, self-wor­ship. We attack the inner citadels of arro­gance and independence. 

Then too we pur­sue and embrace the car­di­nal virtues of tem­per­ance, pru­dence, for­ti­tude, and jus­tice, along with the the­o­log­i­cal virtues of faith, hope, and love. We com­mit our­selves to hon­esty in all busi­ness deal­ings, integri­ty in all words and deeds, puri­ty in all mat­ters of moral­i­ty, gen­eros­i­ty of spir­it in all things, and divine love toward all peoples. 

Many weapons of the Spir­it are employed in this work, but the one most specif­i­cal­ly use­ful in the per­son­al are­na is prayer. In prayer we wait in the pow­er of God for the evil to dis­si­pate and the good to rise up. By prayer we receive spir­i­tu­al enabling to over­pow­er the ego­ism that dri­ves us so relent­less­ly. Through prayer we devel­op the long­ing, the yearn­ing to sink down deep into the things of God. From prayer we dis­cern the actions we are to take to over­come evil with good. All this we will need to sus­tain us in the strug­gle for social righteousness. 

The sec­ond are­na is the social are­na. This begins on the lev­el of inter­per­son­al rela­tion­ships: mar­riages and fam­i­lies and friends and neigh­bors and work asso­ciates and all those who curse us and spite­ful­ly use us. As much as it lies with­in us, we live in peace with all peo­ple. This is the work of heal­ing and rec­on­cil­i­a­tion, of com­pas­sion and shalom.

You may remem­ber that the first inter­nal con­tro­ver­sy the ear­ly church faced after Pen­te­cost was an issue of social jus­tice. The wid­ows of the Greek-speak­ing Jews were being dis­crim­i­nat­ed against in the dai­ly food dis­tri­b­u­tion. This was at its heart a spir­i­tu­al prob­lem, and the apos­tles used an orga­ni­za­tion­al means to solve it. Dea­cons who were full of the Spir­it and of wis­dom” were appoint­ed to over­see the food dis­tri­b­u­tion (Acts 6:3). And just look at the grace and com­pas­sion of the com­mu­ni­ty in solv­ing this prob­lem of dis­crim­i­na­tion: all those cho­sen had Greek names, mean­ing that they were from the aggriev­ed group. May we have the same grace and com­pas­sion in deal­ing with jus­tice in our churches. 

This work of social jus­tice extends on out to the larg­er social con­text of our cul­ture: school boards and com­mu­ni­ty clubs and civic orga­ni­za­tions and city com­mis­sions, and much more. Into all these social net­works we bring love and joy and peace and patience and kind­ness and gen­eros­i­ty and faith­ful­ness and gen­tle­ness and self-con­trol (Gal. 5:22 – 23). We feed the hun­gry. We help the help­less. We reach out to the orphan, the wid­ow, the weak, the shoved aside. We take the strug­gle for jus­tice into the Amer­i­can slums and the Brazil­ian bar­rios and the Indi­an sweath­ous­es and the Cam­bo­di­an hous­es of prostitution. 

As before, we engage in the work of rec­on­cil­i­a­tion and heal­ing, but we do more too. We look for those who are exclud­ed or neglect­ed because of their social sta­tus, or their race, or their back­ground, or their gen­der, or their age, or any num­ber of oth­er things. And we lob­by for their accep­tance and wel­come and embrace into the social net­work. We also look to see if there are social net­works that are destruc­tive to human life — net­works that manip­u­late and con­trol, net­works that exclude and reject. These are not dif­fi­cult to iden­ti­fy if we have eyes to see. Then, depend­ing upon the sit­u­a­tion, our task is either to work for their trans­for­ma­tion or their defeat. 

In addi­tion, we look for any rela­tion­ships or net­works that need to be estab­lished for the health and wel­fare of the com­mu­ni­ty — a new group to fos­ter healthy fam­i­lies, per­haps, or to counter child abuse or to com­bat racism. What­ev­er, wher­ev­er, whoever. 

Our major weapon in this work is Chris­t­ian com­mu­ni­ty. Now, when I speak of Chris­t­ian com­mu­ni­ty,” I am refer­ring not just to the work of church­es, and cer­tain­ly not church­es as they are often man­i­fest today. I am speak­ing of an alter­na­tive way of liv­ing that shows forth social life as it is meant to be lived. Com­mu­ni­ties of love and accep­tance. Fel­low­ships of free­dom and lib­er­a­tion. Cen­ters of hope and vision. Soci­eties of nur­ture and account­abil­i­ty. Lit­tle pock­ets of life and light so stun­ning that a watch­ing world will declare, See how they love one another!” 

The third are­na in our work for social jus­tice is the are­na of insti­tu­tion­al struc­tures. Demon­ic pow­ers can be incar­nat­ed in the struc­tures of any soci­ety, becom­ing part of the pub­lic pol­i­cy and laws of the land. When Jesus cleansed the tem­ple in Jerusalem, he was defeat­ing an insti­tu­tion­al struc­ture that had become destructive. 

Jus­tice and good­ness too can be built into insti­tu­tion­al struc­tures, with­in lim­its. I say with­in lim­its” because just laws, while right and nec­es­sary, can nev­er guar­an­tee the spir­it out of which those laws will be administered. 

In the insti­tu­tion­al are­na we engage in the cul­tur­al man­date.” Our task is to envi­sion and work to real­ize a soci­ety where it is eas­i­er to do good and hard­er to do evil; a soci­ety with insti­tu­tions and laws and pub­lic poli­cies that pro­vide jus­tice for all and enhanced life for all. 

Where struc­tures per­pet­u­ate pover­ty, we work to change them. Where struc­tures dehu­man­ize, we work to make them more respon­sive to human need. In addi­tion, we wel­come and work for all insti­tu­tions that enhance art and beau­ty. It is instruc­tive that all through Dorothy Day’s intense min­istry among the poor, she nev­er lost her love of beau­ty or her love of the the­ater and the arts. 

Now, the bat­tle­fronts in the insti­tu­tion­al are­na are myr­i­ad, and some of them are ter­ri­bly com­pli­cat­ed, for they become all tan­gled up in his­tor­i­cal alle­giances and cul­tur­al tra­di­tions and polit­i­cal inter­ests. But face them we must. The plight of the unborn. Prob­lems of pover­ty and hous­ing. Issues of nation­al­ism and mil­i­tarism. Of war and peace. Of racism. Of sex­ism. Of ageism. Of con­sumerism. Of environmentalism. 

I warned you that some of these mat­ters would get com­pli­cat­ed. I cer­tain­ly have here nei­ther the space nor the wis­dom to stake out a posi­tion on all the areas I have just list­ed (not to men­tion the areas I have not list­ed). But I would encour­age us all to strug­gle with these issues in the light of the prin­ci­ple of a con­sis­tent life eth­ic, where­by we seek to dis­cern what posi­tion and what approach will be the most life-giv­ing to all peo­ple. We look for ways to break the horns of cru­el dilem­mas. We seek out the ways most expres­sive of love of God and love of neigh­bor, the touch­stone of the Social Jus­tice Tradition. 

Prophet­ic wit­ness is the weapon most use­ful in the insti­tu­tion­al are­na. We are the con­science to the var­i­ous expres­sions of insti­tu­tion­al life, most par­tic­u­lar­ly the state. We com­mend the state when it pro­vides jus­tice for all, and we bring prophet­ic cri­tique when it fails. This is done in many ways. John Wool­man wrote and spoke and peti­tioned against the insti­tu­tion of slav­ery. He also refused to wear dyed cloth­ing that was the prod­uct of slave labor. Lat­er many Quak­ers engaged in civ­il dis­obe­di­ence against the Fugi­tive Slave Law of 1793, which made it ille­gal to help run­away slaves. They felt that a high­er law com­pelled them to dis­obey the unjust laws of human gov­ern­ment. Some peo­ple have been drawn into sim­i­lar protests today. When we are so drawn, we must act in a man­ner con­sis­tent with the com­mand­ments to love God and love neigh­bor: we must con­duct peace­ful, non­vi­o­lent, prophet­ic protest. This too is the work of social justice. 

Obvi­ous­ly the nature and kind of prophet­ic wit­ness varies great­ly depend­ing on whether the state is par­tic­i­pa­to­ry or total­i­tar­i­an. William Wilber­force labored in a par­tic­i­pa­to­ry state, Alek­san­dr Solzhen­it­syn in a total­i­tar­i­an state.5 Both gave effec­tive prophet­ic wit­ness. Both under­stood by expe­ri­ence the pen­e­trat­ing words of Don­ald Bloesch: The Gospel is a stick of dyna­mite in the social struc­ture.”6

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Excerpt­ed from Streams of Liv­ing Water by Richard J. Fos­ter, pub­lished by Harper­One. Copy­right Richard J. Fos­ter. Used with permission.

[1] Dag Ham­marskjöld, Mark­ings, trans. Leif Sjöberg and W‑H. Auden (New York: Bal­lan­tine, 1993), p. 10370

[2] Jesus is here draw­ing from two Hebrew tra­di­tions: Deuteron­o­my 6:5 and Leviti­cus 19:18.

[3] I have writ­ten more exten­sive­ly on these mat­ters in my book Free­dom of Sim­plic­i­ty (San Fran­cis­co: Harp­er & Row, 1981). The sec­tion here is a sum­ma­tion of that teaching.

[4] See the arti­cle The OT Term מִשְׁפָּט” in The­o­log­i­cal Dic­tio­nary of the New Tes­ta­ment (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerd­mans, 1975). Expand­ed infor­ma­tion on the use of mish­pat in the Hebrew Scrip­tures can be found in this excel­lent article.

[5] William Wilber­force was a British states­man who labored tire­less­ly to abol­ish the slave trade in Eng­land. Alek­san­dr Solzhen­it­syn (19182008) is a Russ­ian writer whose book The Gulag Arch­i­pel­ago is a dev­as­tat­ing cri­tique of Stalin’s totalitarianism. 

[6] See Don­ald Bloesch, Essen­tials of Evan­gel­i­cal The­ol­o­gy , vol. 1 (San Fran­cis­co: Harp­er & Row, 1978), p. xi

Originally published October 1998